The Xingu Indigenous Park is considered the largest and the most famous of its kind in the world reserves. Created in 1961, during the government of Quadros, was the result of several years of work and political struggle involving the brothers Villas Boas, alongside figures such as Marechal Rondon, Darcy Ribeiro, Noel Nutels, Café Filho and many others.
Located north of Mato Grosso, in an area of about 30 square kilometers, its territory encompasses more than a dozen ethnic groups, including: Waura, Kayabi, Ikpeng, Yudja, Trumai, Suiá, Matipu, Nahukwá, Kamaiurás, Yawalapitis, Mehinakos, Kalapalos, Aweti, Kuikuro.
16 ethnic groups inhabit the park: Aweti, Ikpeng, Kaiabi, Kalapalo, Kamaiurá, Kisêdjê, Kuikuro, Matipu, Mehinako, Nahukuá, Naruvotu, Wauja, Tapayuna, Trumai, Yudja, Yawalapiti.
Languages: Kamaiurá and Kaiabi (Tupi-Guarani family, Tupi trunk); Yudja (Juruna family, Tupi trunk); Aweti (Aweti family, Tupi); Mehinako, Wauja and Yawalapiti (Arawak family); Kalapalo, Ikpeng, Kuikuro, Matipu, Nahukwá and Naruvotu (Carib family); Kisêdjê and Tapayuna (Ge family, trunk Macro-Ge); Trumai (isolated language).
Area - 2,642,003 hectares, comprising the municipalities of Canarana, Paranatinga, Sao Felix do Araguaia, São José do Xingu, North Gaucha, Merry Christmas, Querencia, South Union, New Ubiratã and Marcelândia (all in Mato Grosso).
Major rivers: Von den Steinen, Jatoba, Ronuro, Batovi, Kurisevo and Kuluene. The latter, along with Batovi-Ronuro, are the main tributaries of the Xingu river.
Dates: The administrative demarcation of the Park was ratified in 1961.